# Arithmetic and Logical Operators¶

The main factor that led to the invention of Computers was the search to
simplify Mathematical Operations. Every computer language provides
extensive support for wide range of arithmetic operations. Python’s
arithmetic operators are superset of those in `C`

.

Let’s have look at some of operations…

## Arithmetic Operators¶

```
In [21]:
```

```
4 + 3
```

```
Out[21]:
```

```
7
```

```
In [32]:
```

```
'hi' + ' ' + 'how are you'
```

```
Out[32]:
```

```
'hi how are you'
```

```
In [37]:
```

```
'c' + 1
```

```
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
TypeError Traceback (most recent call last)
<ipython-input-37-4e0a1d805b35> in <module>()
----> 1 'c' + 1
TypeError: Can't convert 'int' object to str implicitly
```

In `C`

, `char`

is equivalent to `uint8`

and arithmetic operations
can be done. In Python, it’s not the case. Thus trying to do so raises a
`TypeError`

```
In [22]:
```

```
4 - 3
```

```
Out[22]:
```

```
1
```

```
In [23]:
```

```
4 / 3
```

```
Out[23]:
```

```
1.3333333333333333
```

**Note**

Division results in floating point number, unlike `C`

. This behaviour
is default from Python 3. Earlier version behaved in the same way as
`C`

. Use `//`

operator to perform floor division.

```
In [24]:
```

```
4 // 3
```

```
Out[24]:
```

```
1
```

```
In [27]:
```

```
5.9 // 3.0
```

```
Out[27]:
```

```
1.0
```

`//`

operator results in integer division, it rounds down the result
to nearest integer

```
In [34]:
```

```
4 * 5
```

```
Out[34]:
```

```
20
```

```
In [4]:
```

```
'he' * 2 + 'h' # A string expression!
```

```
Out[4]:
```

```
'heheh'
```

```
In [28]:
```

```
4 ** 3
```

```
Out[28]:
```

```
64
```

```
In [2]:
```

```
4 ** 0.5
```

```
Out[2]:
```

```
2.0
```

`**`

operator is Power operator. `a**b`

gives `a`

raised to the
power `b`

```
In [3]:
```

```
5 % 4
```

```
Out[3]:
```

```
1
```

All other arithmetic operators and bitwise operators and comparison
operators that are present in `C`

are supported. But the Logical
Operators differs from `C`

.

## Logical Operators - `and`

, `or`

and `not`

¶

Before starting with Logical Operators, note that `True`

and `False`

are boolean primitives in Python as opposed to `true`

and `false`

in
`C++`

,`Java`

and `C#`

**Note**

- In Python, Single line comments start with
`#`

- Multiline comments start and end with triple quotes, i.e.,
`'''`

**Example**

```
# This is a single line comment
'''This is
a multi-
line comment'''
```

```
In [43]:
```

```
# Initialize 2 integer variables
a = 20
b = 10
```

```
In [44]:
```

```
a == 20 and b == 10
```

```
Out[44]:
```

```
True
```

```
In [45]:
```

```
a is 20 or b is 0
```

```
Out[45]:
```

```
True
```

```
In [46]:
```

```
not a == 20
```

```
Out[46]:
```

```
False
```