# Functions¶

If a task has to be performed in a program many times, it is better to code that task as a function. Function is a piece of reusable code that can be invoked(called) from anywhere. They perform the intended task with supplied parameters and return the result if needed.

Python function has several advanatages over `C`

functions and
`Java`

methods:

- Functions can take variable number of arguments. This is supported natively
- Functions can have named arguments (you had seen it in
`print()`

) - Functions can return multiple values
- If you need a helper function for a function, you can define it inside the function

## Defining a function¶

The syntax for defining a function is as follows

```
def function_name(argument_list):
statement_1
statement_2
...
statement_n
return values
```

Let’s write a function for calculating , ‘th Fibonacci Number, defined by

, where and

First implementation uses . Further implementations include options for modifying and

```
In [2]:
```

```
def fibonacci_first(n):
first,second = 0,1
while n != 0:
n, first, second = n - 1, second, first + second
return first
```

```
In [3]:
```

```
fibonacci_first(10) # Function call
```

```
Out[3]:
```

```
55
```

Let’s have an option to choose and

```
In [4]:
```

```
def fibonacci_second(n,a,b):
first,second = a,b
while n != 0:
n, first, second = n - 1, second, first + second
return first
```

```
In [5]:
```

```
fibonacci_second(9,1,1)
```

```
Out[5]:
```

```
55
```

Let and have the default values and respectively

```
In [6]:
```

```
def fibonacci_third(n,a=0,b=1):
first,second = a,b
while n != 0:
n, first, second = n - 1, second, first + second
return first
```

```
In [7]:
```

```
fibonacci_third(10) # behaves like fibonacci_first()
```

```
Out[7]:
```

```
55
```

```
In [8]:
```

```
fibonacci_third(9,1) # behaves like fibonacci_second(9,1,1)
```

```
Out[8]:
```

```
55
```

```
In [9]:
```

```
fibonacci_third(9,1,2) # Run with fully different parameters
```

```
Out[9]:
```

```
89
```

You can also change one default value. You can do this by passing named argument to function

```
In [10]:
```

```
fibonacci_third(9,b=3)
```

```
Out[10]:
```

```
102
```

### What we have to do if we want Fibonacci Numbers instead of th Fibonacci Number?¶

- One soulution is to return a list of numbers. We will see that once we learn about Lists in next chapter
- What we can do now is return an iterable object, that iterates
through Fibonacci numbers. Instead of
`return`

ing a number, we can simply`yield`

it to construct a genertor. The resulting Generator object can be used with`for`

loop. (remember`range`

object)

```
In [2]:
```

```
def fibonacci_generator(n,a=0,b=1):
first,second = a,b
while n != 0:
yield first
n, first, second = n - 1, second, first + second
```

```
In [3]:
```

```
for num in fibonacci_generator(10):
print(num,end=',')
```

```
0,1,1,2,3,5,8,13,21,34,
```

Now you can also use `in`

operator to check the membership of an
element in the Generator Object

```
In [4]:
```

```
8 in fibonacci_generator(10)
```

```
Out[4]:
```

```
True
```

```
In [5]:
```

```
10 in fibonacci_generator(10)
```

```
Out[5]:
```

```
False
```

Let’s modify above loop in order to print Fibonacci Numbers with numbering

```
In [6]:
```

```
for i,num in enumerate(fibonacci_generator(10,a = 2, b = 3)):
print('Fib({})={}'.format(i,num))
```

```
Fib(0)=2
Fib(1)=3
Fib(2)=5
Fib(3)=8
Fib(4)=13
Fib(5)=21
Fib(6)=34
Fib(7)=55
Fib(8)=89
Fib(9)=144
```

`enumerate()`

function takes an iterable object as an argument and
returns an iterator which is the original iterator enumerated.